Sunday, 19 April 2015

Premature Menopause

In the U.S., the average age of onset for "natural" menopause is 51. However, because of genetics, illness, or medical procedures, some women go through menopause before the age of 40. Menopause that occurs before this age, whether natural or induced, is known as "premature" menopause.

In addition to dealing with hot flashes, mood swings, and other symptoms that accompany menopause, many women undergoing premature menopause have to cope with additional physical and emotional concerns. For example, because menopause signals the end of a woman's fertile years, a woman who wishes to get pregnant is likely to have trouble.

What Are the Symptoms of Premature Menopause?
Symptoms of premature menopause are often the same as those experienced by women undergoing natural menopause and may include:

Irregular or missed periods
Periods that are heavier or lighter than usual
Hot flashes (a sudden feeling of warmth that spreads over the upper body)
These symptoms are a sign that the ovaries are producing less estrogen.

Along with the above symptoms, some women may experience:

Vaginal dryness (the vagina may also become thinner and less flexible)
Bladder irritability and worsening of loss of bladder control (incontinence)
Emotional changes (irritability, mood swings, mild depression)
Dry skin, eyes, or mouth
Decreased sex drive
In addition to the symptoms listed above, if you are under the age of 40 and experience any of the following conditions, you should see your doctor to determine whether you are undergoing premature menopause:

You have undergone chemotherapy or radiation
You or a family member has an autoimmune disorder such as hypothyroidism, Graves' disease, or lupus
You have unsuccessfully tried to become pregnant for more than a year
Your mother or sister experienced premature menopause
How Is Premature Menopause Diagnosed?
To diagnose premature menopause, your doctor will most likely perform a physical exam and draw blood to rule out other conditions, such as pregnancy and thyroid disease. He or she may also order a test to measure your estradiol levels. Low levels of estradiol, a form of estrogen, can indicate that your ovaries are starting to fail. When estradiol levels are below 30, it may signal that you are in menopause.

However, the most important test used to diagnose premature menopause is a blood test that measures follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH causes your ovaries to produce estrogen. When your ovaries slow down their production of estrogen, your levels of FSH increase. When your FSH levels rise above 40 mIU/mL, it usually indicates that you are in menopause.

Are There Other Health Issues That Affect Women in Premature Menopause?
Like all menopausal women, women in premature menopause experience lowered estrogen levels as the ovaries stop most of their production of this hormone. Low levels of estrogen can lead to changes in a woman's overall health and may increase her risk for certain medical conditions, such as osteoporosis. Other health risks associated with the loss of estrogen include increased risk for colon and ovarian cancer, periodontal (gum) disease, tooth loss, and cataract formation.

However, compared with women who go through natural menopause, women undergoing premature menopause spend a greater portion of their lives without the protective benefits of their own estrogen. This puts them at an even greater risk for the above mentioned menopause-related health problems.

How Is Premature Menopause Treated?
The symptoms and health risks of premature menopause, as well as the emotional issues that may result from it, can be managed with the methods similar to those used for natural menopause. Women dealing with infertility that is brought on by premature menopause may want to discuss their options with their doctor or with a reproductive specialist.

Can Premature Menopause Be Reversed?
Not usually. Once menopause has set in, it is unlikely to be reversed.

WebMD Medical Reference

Wednesday, 8 April 2015

What Is Implantation Bleeding?

If you see light bleeding -- small pink or brown spots -- in your underwear and you think you might be pregnant, it could be implantation bleeding. That happens 6 to 12 days after conception, and you may mistake it for your regular period.

It’s actually an early sign of pregnancy. It’s not dangerous, and you don’t need treatment.

Heavy bleeding (more than a typical period) is cause for concern, though. Contact your doctor if you have this alone or combined with fever, chills, or cramps that get worse.


After a sperm fertilizes your egg, they become an embryo. It then travels to the uterus, where it implants itself into the lining.

Sometimes, as the embryo attaches, it causes a little bleeding. This doesn't cause any problems for the baby that will develop.


The blood may be lighter in color and flow than what you see during your period. Mild cramping is common.

This bleeding tends to happen sooner than you'd notice morning sickness.


It will stop on its own. If you're worried that you've bled a lot, call your doctor. He may want to know how much you saw in your underwear and what color it was.

Other Causes of Bleeding

Pregnant women can bleed for reasons other than implantation. If it’s heavy plus with or without pain or cramping at any time, call your doctor.

If you’re pregnant and you see blood, it may be caused by:

Sex. Sometimes this happens early on, although it can happen at any time during pregnancy. Hormone changes in your body may be to blame. It should stop on its own.

Ectopic pregnancy. This is when an embryo implants outside of the uterus. You may have bleeding with pain and cramps. It’s dangerous, and you need to see a doctor right away.

Miscarriage. About 15% of known pregnancies end during the first few months. Most women bleed and cramp afterward. Call your doctor right away if you know you're pregnant and you have these symptoms.

Source: WebMd