Friday, 15 August 2014
#1: They have problem with the production of eggs.
For your information, ladies produce eggs--like birds! This is called ovulation, and it occurs normally every month at about the 14th day after the commencement of menstruation. It is tightly regulated by special hormones and body chemicals. It is this egg, produced and released, that joins with sperm cells from the male to form babies. Some women menstruate without ovulating, and without the egg (ovum), there can't be pregnant. Others produce eggs but have problems with the release of the egg to meet the sperm. Hormonal problems can affect these and many complex processes involved in ovulation--eggs production and release. Fortunately, there are tests to show if a lady ovulates or not, and drugs to assist ovulation.
And, ladies, please, have babies as early as possible! After the age of 30, the number and quality of eggs you produce reduces (by about 5% each year, after 30 years of age). This reduces the likelihood of getting pregnant, and having normal delivery, with time. Worse of all, some ladies, these days, have sudden unexplained early menopause--no menses, no eggs, no pregnancy!
#2: They have damaged or blocked tubes.
If the eggs are produced, they are released and pass through a tiny tube (called fallopian tubes) to get to the womb. You see, if one or both of these tubes are damaged or blocked, the chances of the sperms reaching the eggs and going through the tiny tube to the womb to form babies are slim, or not possible! Some ladies are born with abnormal or blocked tubes. Also, the tubes are blocked commonly after gonorrhea, genital infections, abortions, ectopic pregnancy, and so on. Some surgeries in the abdomen can cause some scar tissues and adhesions that might block the tubes. There are ways to check if the tubes are blocked, especially by a procedure called hysterosalpingography (HSG), and even though delicate, expensive microsurgery can be done to repair damaged tubes, the outcome is usually poor with few success stories. IVF--in vitro fertilisation--is a good solution to blocked tubes.
#3: They have problems with their wombs.
The womb is where the baby forms. It must be conducive and accommodating for a successful and healthy pregnancy. Several things can go wrong here. Some ladies are born with abnormal and malformed wombs and cervix. Some ladies, after having abortions, especially D and C, develop all manners of bizzare complications; for example, the walls of the womb can get glued and attached in ugly ways during the healing process, thereby closing every space where they baby could develop and grow. Also, ladies who don't have babies early enough in their reproductive life might develop fibroids--the womb hates being empty for long: if you don't put babies in there, it will grow fibroids! Fibroids and polyps make pregnancy very difficult or even impossible for many ladies, and cause repeated miscarriages. Fortunately, we, the doctors, know what to do, most of the time.
#4: The problem is from their male partner
For every case of infertility, on the average, about 40% of the time, the problem is from the male, (and also 40% from the female). Morals: Don't be quick to point at the lady for every case of infertility--the male also has an equal chance to be the cause of the infertility! He might have failure to produce or transport sperm cells properly; the sperm cells might be weak in activity, or very few in number thereby reducing the possibility of pregnancy; he might have damaged testes from diseases like mumps or gonorrhea; excessive cigarette smoking and consumption of alcohol might be the case; and so on. Flash the light on the man, and about 40% of the time, he would be the culprit! - See more at:
#5: The problem might be unknown, vague, or funny!
Ideally, medically, adequate sexual intercourse is sex on at least 3 days in every week of the month! Stop calling my phone complaining of infertility when you "meet" your husband only once in a month--it might just always be during your "safe periods"! Some ladies are, unknown to them, under the effects of contraception, maybe, injection or implant, and might find it difficult conceiving for some time. Interestingly, some virgins are complaining of infertility! We have ignorant, naive couples who think they have been having sex [I wonder what on Earth they were doing], yet on examination you find her hymen intact (and she's still a virgin) after months of marriage! Go and learn! Also, some times, breastfeeding is a powerful way of contraception. A couple came complaining of inability to conceive for months; and the problem was simple: when she weaned her baby, her husband took over!
All said and done, about 20% of the time, no-one is sure why a lady can't conceive and have a baby. All might be okay with the guy and the lady, yet with regular, 3-days-in-a-week, unprotected sex, for over a period of one year, she still can't get pregnant! Pray hard--and adoption of a child is a great, commendable alternative.
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Source: Dr. 'Malik Haruna King
"Safe sex" is used to describe precautions taken to prevent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unintended pregnancy. As with other articles in this blog-site, I write in response to several people who have asked questions relating to preventing pregnancy. This post is especially for such people (and in answer to their questions). "Safe sex" is a misnomer because sex can never be absolutely safe if it involves two opposite sexes with reproductive capacities.
We could only talk about "safer sex"; that is, reducing the chances of getting pregnant as much as possible. No 100% guarantee, but we could get close to that! There are several methods with their advantages and disadvantages. We would not be able to discuss all of them in a single post. We can only choose a few.
Drinking salt-water does not prevent pregnancy! Washing with potash ("kanwa"), garlic, or recently, Coca-cola doesn't work either! So what works?
#1: ABSTINENCE: A very powerful alternative to sex is abstinence from sex!It works It is 100% safe! Preventing pregnancy and infections. Lack of sex does not kill, neither does it have any adverse effect on health, either of the mind or the body! Don't I just love abstinence!
#2: SAFE PERIOD: Calendar Method (or calculation of safe period) is a very good place to start, especially for ladies with regular menstrual cycle (that is, you see your period about the same time monthly, with only few days plus or minus). Simply put, if we call the day you started menstruating "day 1" and 8 days after you started menstruating as "day 8", then avoid sex from "day 8" through "day 19". Every other day is safe, including days you menstruate! That is "day 1" to "day 7" is safe; and also, "day 20" after commencement of menses to the next menses! Generally avoid days around "day 14". Take time to study this method and your cycle. It is not just cheap; it is free, and quite effective.
#3: WITHDRAWAL METHOD: Withdrawal method, taking out the male organ just in time before ejaculation (releasing), has proven to be quite effective. This however requires skill and self-control from the guy. But, it is said to obstruct the flow of the whole process! He must be experienced to know when he is about releasing sperm. Some whitish semen-like fluid comes out before the actual "release"; this doesn't usually contain sperm cell; it's for lubrication. Failure comes from being carried away and not coming out before release. Failure also comes from going for another "round" after releasing; some semen remains within, which can only be removed by urinating. In summary, come out way before release; urinate to clear the "pipeline" before going in for another "round", which is not usually advisable. Oh, how dangerous semen is!
#4: CONDOMS: We all know about condoms! People, especially guys, complain about how it reduces sensitivity. Yet it has a high percentage of effectiveness if used correctly, and it also protects from several deadly diseases, including HIV/AIDS. It is cheap, and it prolongs intercourse, helping the guy to "last" longer! Failure comes from condom breaking, or slipping off (and spilling of semen) during or after intercourse. Check the expiry date. Don't lubricate with vaseline or baby oil; rather go to a pharmacy and get "KY Jelly" for lubricating the condom if you must. Make sure she is well aroused before penetration. Allow for some space at the tip of the condom. And make sure you come out before the male organ becomes too soft, holding the base of the condom while you carefully come out to prevent spillage. Don't use condoms more than once. In case of breakage or spillage, get emergency contraception.
#5: CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS: I won't talk much about contraceptive pills! It is among the most effective, but for the side-effects, like weight increase. Emergency contraceptives, like Postinor, are very effective in preventing pregnancy if taken within 72 hours after sex -- the earlier, the better. If you vomit within 3 hours of taking the tablet, take another one. It doesn't protect for subsequent sex. It may, however, affect your next menses in timing (it may come earlier or later) or in volume (it may be heavy or scanty, or not at all!) It's best to combine two or more methods; it raises the effectiveness of preventing pregnancy to near 100%! For example, consider "safe period + withdrawal" or "abstinence + abstinence"! Lol.
DISCLAIMER: This article does not in any way represents my moral convictions or my personal practices; I write strictly as a medical doctor.These methods prevent pregnancy, but don't prevent guilt. Condoms cover the organ, and not the conscience. This article does not address preventing STIs. Got a question? Contact us...
Source: Dr. 'Malik Haruna King -
Thursday, 14 August 2014
What is Bedwetting?
Children vary greatly in their ability to control their bladders at night. While most children stop bedwetting between the age of three and five years old, some may only reach this developmental stage much later.
It is quite normal for a child under the age of five to wet the bed occasionally, and boys often take longer than girls to become dry at night. ‘Accidents’ do happen and should be dealt with kindly and sensitively in order to prevent emotional pain, low self-esteem, and shame. Children who wet their beds should never be punished.
Although bedwetting is generally not a cause for great concern, it can be a strain on both parents and child, and as children get older, the problem tends to be associated with emotional stress.
If your child does wet the bed far beyond what is considered age-appropriate or starts wetting the bed after long periods of "dryness", it is advisable to seek a professional opinion to determine the underlying cause.
Approximately 20 percent of children over the age of five still wet their beds, and boys are generally more affected than girls. While most of these children will grow out of this phase before they reach puberty, a select few suffer from bedwetting (also called nocturnal enuresis) right through their teens and even into adulthood.
Adult bedwetting or even bedwetting that continues through the later years of childhood and adolescence can be extremely distressing and may lead to emotional and personal problems. Research also shows that bedwetting beyond the average age of nighttime bladder control is likely to run in families.
There are many ways to help your child if bedwetting is a concern, so explore the treatment options to determine which would best suit your child.
When Should I Worry About Bedwetting?
What Causes Bedwetting?
Bedwetting is usually caused by an immature bladder or the inability to wake up due to very deep sleep states. In both cases, this is typically something your child will grow out of in time as the bladder matures and the mind becomes more sensitive to the bodies’ cues to wake up. If your child is older, yet still experiences bedwetting at night, food allergies may be to blame. It is important to take note of what your child eats before he or she goes to bed, as the reaction typically occurs within a few minutes to a few hours.
Help for Bedwetting
Your doctor will begin by getting a detailed history of your child’s bedwetting, as well as any other symptoms that might be experienced. Depending on the circumstances, a full medical check, including urine analysis and blood tests, may be done to rule out medical conditions such as diabetes or a urinary tract infection. If your doctor suspects a physical abnormality, an X-ray or scan of the kidneys and bladder may be done or you may be referred to an urologist for further testing. Treatment will depend on the underlying cause and the seriousness of the problem.
A number of treatment options are available to help treat bedwetting, including behavioral changes, moisture alarms, drug treatment and psychotherapy. Pick a treatment option that best suits your child and family.
Because most children grow out of bedwetting by themselves, sometimes simple behavioral and routine changes may be enough to break the bed-wetting cycle. Try limiting fluid intake before bed and ensuring that your child makes a trip to the bathroom and empties his or her bladder right before lights-out. During the day, encourage your child to urinate only when he or she really needs to. This will help to stretch the bladder so that it can hold more urine.
There are a variety of bedwetting alarms that can be bought at most pharmacies. These devices have moisture-sensitive pads that can be slipped into your child’s pajamas or bedding that sound off an alarm as soon as moisture is detected. In many children, this is enough to wake them as they begin to urinate, and they can then quickly get to the toilet. In very deep sleepers, a parent may need to go wake the child on hearing the alarm. The body soon learns that wetting the bed means waking up, and so it begins to wake up by itself. These devices have been very successful, and although they may take up to 12 weeks to show positive results, they have a good long-term effect with a very low relapse rate.
Some health care practitioners may prescribe various drug treatments to help prevent bedwetting. These medications are somewhat controversial as some have very serious side effects and most only offer short-term immediate relief. Once medication is stopped, bedwetting usually returns.
It is strongly advised that you thoroughly research any prescription medication and its side effects before agreeing to drug therapy, especially in the case of young children.
Psychotherapy and parent counseling can be very helpful in cases of persistent bedwetting. Intervention may range from simple behavioral modification programs to play therapy in cases of underlying depression and anxiety.
More Information on Bedwetting
Tips for Concerned Parents
Never punish or shame your child for wetting the bed. Be patient and kind, and show that you understand that it is not their fault. Show them that you are keen to help them with this problem. Added stress and anxiety will only compound the problem and may even increase the chances of a bedwetting episode.
Give your child the encouragement and self-reliance they need to motivate themselves. This will increase your child’s willingness and determination to stay dry all night on their own terms.
Implement good bedtime habits by limiting fluid intake at night, and ensuring that children empty their bladders before bedtime. If bedwetting occurs consistently at about the same time, wake your child just before this time for a trip to the bathroom.
Talk to your child about any fears, worries, and feelings of anxiety. You may find that your child is feeling insecure or anxious about something that needs to be addressed. Reassure children that there is nothing wrong with getting up in the night to use the toilet and discuss ways of making this less intimidating. Consider leaving the corridor and bathroom light on, or leave a "bathroom buddy" soft toy waiting outside the bedroom door to accompany worried children to the bathroom.
Plan ahead for nighttime accidents. Cover your child’s mattress with a plastic covering and make sure that spare linen and pajama’s are readily available. When bedwetting happens, get your child to take some of the responsibility by helping you change the sheets and put the wet items in the wash.
Praise dry nights, concerted efforts and any help your child gives after the bedwetting. This will give your child a sense of control and pride in staying dry.
If you have other children, make sure that they do not taunt and tease the bedwetting sibling. This added "ammunition" can make your child very vulnerable to the emotional problems of poor self-esteem and shame that you are trying so hard to avoid. Make the whole family aware that it is not the bedwetter’s fault.
Pull-up disposable underpants are a short-term option and can be especially useful for hassle-free family holidays or if your child wants to go to sleepovers without the risk of wetting the bed. These can be used discretely, and may offer your child added self-esteem. It must be noted that while pull-ups may be convenient, they often do not solve the long-term problem!
Source: Native R...